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Ruian Shunfeng Navigation Instruments Co.,Ltd

Add: No.20, Heping Road, Jinhu Street, Ruian, Zhejiang, China
Con: april Zhang
Tel: +86-577-65520898
Fax: +86-577-65966926
Mob: +8618158321811
Email: sale@rashunfeng.cn


Early Navigation Of Nautical Technology.

The courage of the early voyagers is well known, and they continue to make up for the backward maritime technology of the old era through great innovation. When the early Vikings were sailing, the captain was very familiar with the sea and natural objects in the sea, such as birds, fish, water, driftwood, seaweed, water, ice sheet reflection, clouds, wind and so on. In the 9th century, the famous Nordic navigator Flechki always had a cage of crows on the ship. When he felt that the ship was about to be close to the land, he would fly the birds in the cage. If the bird flies aimlessly around the ship, it means that it is far from the land; if the crow flies in a particular direction, he will sail in the direction of the bird, and this is often the way to the land. direction. Of course, this method only works when it is closer to the land.

At that time, the voyagers always kept sailing at a relatively close distance from the shore at sea, and they could see the land characteristics to determine whether the heading was correct. Usually they sail during the day and park in the harbor at night or anchor down on the sea. Most of the merchant ships in European cities like the medieval period used coastal coasts, preferring to sail along the Mediterranean coasts of Spain, France and Italy. They are not willing to sail eastward after passing through the Strait of Gibraltar. In short, no ship owner dared to venture out into the sea to see the land on the land, because they believe that the danger of the ship hitting the reef and the shoal is not as terrible as sinking in the sea. And they dare not wear direct flights for three reasons: one is afraid of losing their way; the other is fear of storms in the ocean; the third is fear of being attacked by pirates. But in the final analysis, it is the first reason! Later, the navigation technology has made progress. Although there are still two or three reasons, the ship dares to sail through the ocean. Therefore, in ocean voyages, it is determined that the orientation of the vessel is first. At first, the voyager judged the latitude by observing the height of the sun during the day and observing the position of the North Star at night. By relying on celestial positioning, the navigator used a very simple instrument to measure the angle of the celestial body, which was called "Jacob". The observer has two scorpions connected at the top, the bottom one is parallel to the horizon, and the upper one is aligned with the celestial body (the stars or the sun), and the energy is out of the yaw angle. The angling difference is then used to calculate the latitude and range. This technique is called "latitude navigation" and is relatively successful in measuring latitude, but it is very difficult to determine longitude. Despite this, the “latitude navigation” approach is still widely adopted in Western Europe, placing itself on the same latitude line as the destination, and then staying on this line to sail to the destination. However, this is not completely scientific. Even today, the use of astronomical positioning errors will still be around 1-2 nautical miles. At that time, there were almost no decent navigation tools, and the error was imaginable. The most famous is Columbus West Air. He thinks that after going south and the same latitude as India, he can travel straight to the west and can actually reach a small island in the Caribbean Sea of Bahamas, even though he is dying. It is India that insists that he arrives.

The first marine tool invented by man was the compass, which is the prototype of the compass. At the beginning, people only used the compass when the weather was bad, they could not see the sun and the North Star, and they did not know where the ship headed. The voyager rubs an iron pin on a magnet to make it magnetic, fix it on a straw, and suspend it in a bowl of water, so that the magnetic iron needle will automatically point north. The compass was introduced to Europe from China in the 12th century, and was later transformed into a “north” direction by European navigators. By around 1250, the nautical magnetic compass has been developed to continuously measure all horizontal directions with an accuracy of less than 3°. But the magnetic compass is not quickly accepted by Europeans. Because people still can't scientifically explain why the pointer can "find" the north, and people quickly discover that the north of these needles is often inaccurate. Because they don't know that the iron needle refers to the magnetic north pole, but not the true north (the angle of the period is called the magnetic declination). At that time people could not explain these phenomena, so sailing in an unknown place was not very convincing of the compass. So the original compass was very mysterious. The average sailor didn't dare to use it. Only the bold and cautious captain used it secretly and put it in a small box to prevent others from seeing it. The fact that the compass was widely used in Europe was a matter of the late 13th century.